Remember Frank W. Kushel? No? Well, you're not alone. And more's the pity, we might add, for the uncelebrated Mr. Kushel may have had as much impact on American housing as his famous contemporary, Frank Lloyd Wright.
Kushel wasn't an architect. He was a merchandising genius credited
with inventing Sears, Roebuck and Company's Modern Homes program, which
provided well designed, well constructed, economical shelter for perhaps
75,000 American families between 1908 and 1940. Today, buyers are still
snapping up vintage Sears houses just as eagerly as they did 80 years
Kushel was managing Sears's china department in 1906 when he was given the dismal task of overseeing the dismantling of the catalog company's unwieldy, money-losing building materials department. Sales were down, and there was too much inventory sitting in expensive warehouses. It seemed time to unload the lot.
Then, hmmm . . . Kushel had an idea. He was convinced that the building supplies could be sold at a profit if storage could be centralized and the goods distributed more rationally-and if there was a little extra incentive for buying them. Instead of abandoning the sale of millwork and other building parts, why not change the way these goods were sold? What if customers could pick a plan for their dream house from a Sears catalog? Then, instead of selling building materials in random bits and pieces, Sears could market them in a coordinated package-one containing exactly what was needed to build a particular house and shipped directly to the railroad station nearest the building site. One order could include everything-nails and screws, paint and roof shingles, windows and doors, woodwork, staircases, and mantelpieces.
Of course, since Sears's big general merchandise catalogs were already selling everything needed to furnish a house-from beds and chairs to toilets, sinks, and kitchen ranges-the sales of all these items would increase too!
Kushel's boss, Richard Sears- himself no slouch at merchandising-recognized the plan's potential immediately and so did the buying public. Sears's reputation for quality, low prices, and reliability, carefully nurtured since the company's founding in 1886, was like money in the bank for its customers. The company's first, 44-page Book of Modern Homes and Building Plans, issued in 1908, brought an immediate and enthusiastic response.
Kushel wasn't the only or even the first person to come up with a scheme to sell houses by catalog and ship them by rail. In 1906 the North American Construction Company (soon to become known as the makers of "Aladdin Houses" and "Readi-Cuts") of Bay City, Michigan, had begun selling rail-shipped precut buildings-small cottages, garages, and boathouses-out of a mail-order plan book. It wasn't until about 1911 that Sears included framing lumber in its package, and the company didn't begin to offer precut and factory-fitted lumber until 1914. Before then, the lumber still had to be cut to fit at the building site. Montgomery Ward, Sears's foremost catalog competitor in general merchandise, was even slower to jump on the bandwagon, waiting until 1910 to sell house plans from a catalog and 1918 for ready-cut houses. Sears and its competitors all depended on rail service, which by the early 20th century covered most of the continent, and regional lumber mills where the wood could be centrally processed.
In 1911, Sears added an irresistible new twist. The company decided not just to sell house-building packages, but to finance them as well. The nation's booming population was straining the seams of a tight housing market, yet the huge and fast-growing middle and working classes (many members of which were recent European immigrants) had been largely ignored by a conservative banking community. If Sears could offer reasonable interest rates and low down payments, the market seemed endless. Although the financing package initially included only building materials, it soon expanded to cover the building lot.
Not only were the terms easy-a down payment of 25 percent of the cost of house and lot, as little as 6 percent interest for 5 years, or a higher rate for up to 15 years-but the application form contained no questions about race, ethnicity, gender, or even finances. Thousands of formerly ineligible buyers were absorbed into the new-home market.
Catalogs by Category
On one level was what Sears called a house kit. For these, Sears provided building plans and specifications, along with the lumber and any other materials needed. The shipment included everything from nails, screws, and paint to prebuilt building parts, such as staircases and dining nooks. It did not include masonry, such as bricks and cement blocks, which would be cheaper to procure locally than to send by rail. The lumber was cut to size at the building site before being assembled by a local builder.
Ready-Cut The true Ready-Cut House package, first offered about 1914, included plans, specifications, and detailed assembly instructions, along with precut and factory-fitted lumber and all other building materials except masonry. The lumber was stamped with the Sears name and numbered on the ends of the boards to correspond to numbers on the floor plans, so that mistakes in assembly were less likely-though far from impossible, as many extant Sears houses testify by their otherwise inexplicable deviations. Sears estimated that using their precut and fitted lumber could save 40 percent on labor costs.
In theory, really handy homeowners could-and some did-put together their own Sears houses with only the aid of the instruction manual. More often, the actual construction was left to-or at least required considerable help from-a local builder. Over the 30-year lifespan of the Modern Homes program, the various service systems within the house-such as plumbing, electricity, and heating-became more complex, so that owners were more likely to call in trade specialists. At any rate, Sears always furnished estimates of the finished cost of the house, including labor (not part of the Sears package).
Honor Bilt Among Ready-Cut Houses, the Honor Bilt line (apparently established about 1918) was the standard setter. Honor Bilts used high-quality materials and heavy framing. They had double floors (a subfloor and a 13/16? thick finish floor of maple or oak), oak wall paneling, doors, trim, and cabinets, three coats of exterior paint, and higher-grade hardware.
Sears encouraged Honor Bilt buyers to specify the more deluxe bathroom "outfits"-sets of tubs, sinks, and toilets-and kitchen sinks, all of which were optional and separately priced. Electrical systems, water heaters, and furnaces were also separate options. The Honor Bilts were generally larger, more elaborate houses than the ones that Sears called "Standard Builts."
In a few cases, Honor Bilts were not precut. Sears furnished wood lath for plaster walls, but not the plaster. Alternatively, customers could opt for "sheet plaster" (gypsum board, an early form of wallboard) at considerably greater expense. For roofing, they could choose between red cedar shingles or the costlier "Oriental Asphalt" shingles, which came with a 17-year guarantee.
Standard Builts Less expensive than the Honor Bilt and of correspondingly lower quality was the Standard Built House (also known as Econo Bilt or Lighter-Built). The lightly framed Standard Builts were most often used for summer cottages, hunting cabins, and very small dwellings, and were generally recommended for warm-weather situations. Some designs were offered in both Honor Bilt and Standard Built versions. Sears advised potential buyers that, because the Standard Builts had only a single layer of flooring and the walls were not plastered, they were harder to heat than Honor Bilts. Nonetheless, these little light-weights sometimes turn up even today as year-round residences. They were usually not precut or fitted.
Simplex The Simplex was a prefabricated, panelized, one-storey building that could easily be taken apart. Demountable and portable, it was most often used for garages, summer cottages and cabins, and small, utilitarian buildings that the owner might wish to move from place to place. There are separate Simplex catalogs dating from as early as 1911.
What Styles When?
Beginning with a simplified Queen Anne, Modern Homes styles ranged from Arts & Crafts bungalows and Foursquares in the 1910s and '20s, through the various European revivals of vaguely French, English, and Spanish (usually Mission) styles in the 1920s, to the Colonial Revivals, Cape Cods, and Dutch Colonials found mostly in the 1920s and '30s.
Modern Homes catalogs often carried designs well past what is generally considered their peak years. Bungalows, for instance, were among the most frequently built of all of Sears house types (and along with the Colonial Revival and the Cape Cod cottage the longest-lived), appearing in every catalog from 1908 onward. As late as 1939 the "Winona," which first appeared in 1916, is shown with another, rather stodgy five-room example, the "Plymouth," which first appeared in 1934.
Although most designs were conservative, there were some large and elegant surprises. One of the most elaborate (described in the 1918 and 1921 catalogs as bearing "a close resemblance" to Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's Cambridge, Massachusetts, residence) is the three-storey, eight-room neo-Georgian "Magnolia," with its two-storey columned portico, porte-cochere, and sleeping porches. The "Aurora" and the "Carlton," both of which appear in 1918, are sophisticated Prairie School designs, and the flat-roofed "Bryant" is in the International style. The 1933 to 1939 catalogs feature several early split-levels, including the "Concord."
Sears's later catalogs included a number of Sears-built exhibition
houses, including two reproductions of Mount Vernon (one for a 1931
exposition in Paris and one for a Washington Bicentennial celebration
in Brooklyn); a reproduction of New York City's Federal Hall, the first
capitol of the United States (also for the Washington Bicentennial);
a "dream home" for Warner Brothers (erected in Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania); and a fully furnished model house exhibited at the 1933
Century of Progress World's Fair in Chicago.
Most of the houses had two or three bedrooms, although some had four or even five. The majority had only one bathroom, and some, especially in the early 20th century, had none, since many rural and even some suburban areas lacked piped-in water and sewers or septic fields. By the 1930s, though, quite a few of the larger houses had two (or even two and a half bathrooms) or a full bath and a "powder room." Buyers had their choice of two different "outfits," depending on their tastes and pocketbooks and on the requirements of the bathroom layout. Kitchen sinks were included in the specifications.
The Sears house was often equipped with the most sought after conveniences of its time, from built-in china cabinets, mirrored closet doors, dining nooks and kitchen cupboards, to built-in ironing boards, telephone niches, and medicine cabinets. Some of these amenities came as part of the package, while others were options.
Sears houses were often built in multiples, creating entire homogeneous neighborhoods. A number of these still exist, many in industrial towns. One of the best known Sears house locations is in Carlinville, Illinois, where Standard Oil of Indiana built a million-dollar development of 192 Honor Bilt houses for employees of Schoper coal mine (156 intended for miners and other workers, an additional 28 nearby and somewhat more deluxe meant for supervisors). The five- and six-room houses of what became known as the Standard Addition, which included many bungalows and Foursquares, cost roughly $3,600 to $4,600 and were regarded as unusually fine examples of worker housing.
On the other end of the socioeconomic scale are places like Cheverly, Maryland, or Crescent Hills in Hopewell, Virginia, both affluent neighborhoods of "strictly high-class [Sears] homes" built by private developers in the 1920s. (Hopewell also has a large group of Aladdin houses built during World War I for workers at the DuPont Corporation's gun-cotton factory there.)
The Modern Homes mortgage program peaked in the late 1920s but showed increasing signs of strain as the full effects of the Great Depression hit. Sears withdrew from the Modern Homes and mortgage loan market in 1934, but was selling houses again a year later, after the establishment of the Federal Housing Administration and its federally insured mortgages fueled a brief upsurge in the housing market. The Modern Homes program was finally defeated by tens of millions of dollars in mortgage defaults, as well as pre-World War II shortages of building materials. The last Modern Homes catalog was issued in 1940.
By the time the Modern Homes project folded for good, Sears houses were a staple of the American landscape. Frank Kushel continued to head the Modern Homes program until the end, by which time he was still hardly any better known than he had been in 1906. And Frank Lloyd Wright? Interestingly enough, Wright-who always had a strong interest in designing houses for Everyman-entered the precut home market himself when he produced a number of designs for prefabricated houses, American System-Built Houses, for the Richards Company of Milwaukee between 1911 and 1916.
The first problem is that in more than 32 years of catalog sales, Sears offered 447 different designs, according to the "Sears Archives." Because most of the houses are small and simple in style, they often resemble those found in the catalogs of other ready-cut companies-or even from enterprising local copycat builders.
Then, too, Sears encouraged potential buyers to customize their designs with the aid of Sears's architectural department-flip a floor plan; change a roofline; add or subtract a room; a porch, or a window; use a different entry detail, etc. Or, the houses may have been altered during construction, either inadvertently or by the owner. And because these were often small "starter" houses, many were altered and added to long after construction.
Another mystery: While many Sears precut and fitted wood pieces (rafters, beams, sills, lintels, woodwork, and mouldings) are stamped with the Sears name and/or numbered for ease of assembly, sometimes there are no markings to be found. This could be because Sears encouraged customers to buy lumber locally if it was cheaper than shipping from a Sears mill. Sears door and cabinet hardware, lighting and plumbing fixtures, and other building parts were also marked but might have been bought for a non-Sears house.
Finally, although Sears houses consistently display certain construction
details (five-piece eaves brackets, front porches, and small attic windows,
for instance) so do other well-designed ready-cut and conventional houses
of the period. So unless the paperwork (mortgage agreement, floor plans,
materials list, correspondence, building permits listing Sears as the
"architect") or a credible family or neighborhood oral history
exists, it may be hard to know where the house originated-though it's
always fun to keep digging.
The classic study of Sears houses is Houses by Mail: A Guide to Houses from Sears, Roebuck and Company by Katherine Cole Stevenson and H. Ward Jandl, published in 1986. The most recent is The Houses That Sears Built: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about Sears Catalog Homes by Rosemary Thornton, which came out in March 2002.